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英语应试填空解析

2018-06-26

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文章摘要:英语应试填空解析,,。

填空题常考结构

一、主句单一原则

任何一个句子中只可能有一个主句。

做题时考生需要首先判断原题中已经给出的句子结构,如果已经有一个主句,那么就绝对不能够再出现另一个主句,除非中间有连接词进行联系。

1--, work songs often exhibit the song culture of a people in a fundamental form.

(A) They occur where they are

(B) Occuring where

(C) Where they occur

(D) Where do they occur

分析:空格后面是一个主句,(A)为带有从句的主句,空格后又是主句,有两个主句一定错。

C为地点状语从句,正确(劳动歌曲发生的地方)。

2:--Indiana, is in a rich farming and dairy area, it is primarily a diversified industrial center

(A) Fort Wayne

(B) Although Fort Wayne

(C) For wayne is in

(D) Fort Wayne, in

分析:空格后有两个谓语动词但中间没有连接词,由此可知,最后一句话是一个主句,空格处应该有从句引导词,四个选项中只有(B)中although能引导从句,故选(B)。

二、谓语动词专一原则

任何一个句子只可能存在一个谓语动词。

句子中不可能没有谓语动词,也不能多于一个谓语动词(除非中间存在连接词)。

1:William Walker's mural, “Wall of Respect,”

-----an outdoor wall in Chicago, deals with

social issues.

(A) covers

(B) covers it

(C) which covers

(D) which it covers

分析:空格后的deals with 是谓语动词,A, B是谓语形式, 和deals with 之间没有连接词,可先排除; D 中的it多余,因为在定语从句中which已经作了主语;C构成正确的定语从句

2In copper engravings and etchings, -----caused

by the edges of the plate is clearly visible on

the paper.

(A) the impression is

(B) if the impression is

(C) impressions

(D) the impression

分析:题目中的is是谓语,A,B中是谓语重复。C为复数名词,与后面的谓语动词is的数不一致,故也排除。因此选择D,caused.... 修饰impression

三、平行结构

技巧:如果填空题中空格的后面有and, 或者and后面有空格,那么这道题目一定是考察平行结构。

填空题中平行结构出现的形式是:

A and B,

A , B,andC

1The technique of recording, classifying, and--

is known as accounting.

(A) an enterprise's transactions summary

(B) the summarizing of an enterprise's

transactions

(C) transactions of an enterprise are

summarized

(D) summarizing the transactions of an

enterprise

分析:空格的后面是and, 一般考平行结构,空格处缺与前面recording、classifying并列的动名词。

四个选项中只有(D)符合条件,故选(D)。

2Louis T. Wright, a surgeon, developed

ingenious orthopedic braces, --, and

supervised the first use of Aureomycin on

human patients.

(A) treating skull fractures that he pioneered in

(B) pioneered in treating skull fractures

(C) which pioneered in treating skull fractures

(D) he was a pioneer in the treatment of skull

fractures

分析:空格后面是and, 空格处缺少和developed、supervised平行的谓语动词,因此选择(B)。

四、宾语从句结构

宾语从句的引导词在前面的主从复合句中已经提到。

这里指出的是填空题中关于宾语从句考的最多的两个结构:

state(陈述,表明)+that

indicate(指明,表明)+that

1The quantum theory states --, such as light,

is given off and absorbed in tiny definite

units called quanta or photons.

(A) energy that

(B) that it is energy

(C) it is energy

(D) that energy

分析:空格前的谓语动词states一般接关系连词that引导的宾语从句,故首先排除C。空格后已有谓语动词,空格不应再出现谓语动词,因此D正确。

2Studies of the gravity field of the Earth

indicate--yield when unusual weight is

placed on them.

(A) although its crust and mantle

(B) its crust and mantle to

(C) that its crust and mantle

(D) for its crust and mantle to

分析:空格处显然缺谓语动词indicate的宾语。(A)和(D)不能作宾语,可首先排除。(B)使句子结构混乱、语义不清,因此选择(D),构成宾语从句。

五、介词+ which结构

许多同学在选择which还是介词+which上总是不太明白,这里有一个技巧可以告诉大家。

“which”后面一定加一个缺主语或者宾语的句子,

因为“which”在这个句子中作了宾语或者主语成分。

“介词+ which”后面则跟一个完整的句子,

因为”介词+which”整个结构在定语从句中作状语。

1In the United States, a primary election is

a method ---- voters select the nominees

for public office.

(A) that

(B)by which

(C)is that

(D)by those

分析:空格前后都是句子,因此缺从句引导词或连接词,首先排除C和D。

A能够引导从句,但是根据题意,修饰method是不通的。

B是介词+which, 引导定语从句,(大选是一种方法,根据这个方法,选民怎么….);正确

2:Croquet is a popular lawn game ------ players

hit wooden balls through wire arches called

wickers.

(A) when

(B) which

(C) is when

(D) in which

分析:空格前后都是完整的句子,空格处缺定语从句引导词,由此首先排除(A)和(C)。但是到底是选择B还是D,则看从句,从句是完整的句子,那么一定选择D, 关系代词which 前应该有介词。

六、in that结构

在表示“原因”概念的引导词中,

because of +名词,

consequently是副词

而“in that”是原因状语的引导词。

1Mercury differs from other industrial metals

---- it is a liquid.

(A) whereas

(B) in that

(C) because of

(D) consequently

分析:空格前后都是完整的句子,空格处显然缺从句引导词。C、D不能引导从句,可以首先排除。

根据题意,两个句子之间是因果关系而不是对比关系,故选(B)。in that为复合连词,用来引导原因状语从句。

2Hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicles, are unusual

-- travel over land and water on a layer of air.

(A)they

(B)in they

(C)that they

(D)in that they

分析:空格处缺从句引导词和从句主语。A和B缺从句引导词,首先被排除。C一般作宾语从句或定语从句,而句中需要的是状语从句,故也排除。D中in that为连词,引导表原因的状语从句,符合题意(气垫船之所以不同,是因为……),故选D。

这里我们再重申一下,如果选项中出现“介词+which”或者“in that”,那么首先考虑这个选项,如果后面使用的是完整的句子结构,那么这个选项就一定是答案。这种题目平时出现的不多,但是要考的话一定就是重点。

3Emily Dickinson's garden was a place ------

great inspiration for her poems.

(A) that she drew

(B) by drawing her

(C) from which she drew

(D) drawn from which

分析:首先看选项C,“介词+which”, 而后面是she drew great inspiration for her poems.是一个完整句子,那么选项C就是答案。

七、what结构

what结构在95.8以后的新题中考的非常多,记住一点:

what=the thing that

1The chief foods eaten in any country depend

largely on ----- best in its climate and soil.

(A) it grows

(B) what grows

(C) does it grow

(D) what does it grow

分析:空格前有depend on这个短语,四个选项都是句子,故可判断出空格处为宾语从句。A和C没有从句引导词,故排除,(D)的语序有问题,从句不能用特殊疑问句的倒装形式,故(B)正确。

2During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle

was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory

became----is now Indiana and Ohio.

(A) there

(B) where

(C) that

(D) what

分析:空格处缺的词既要引导从句又要作从句主语。四个选项中只有D符合条件。

八、同位语结构

同位语考试形式一:名词作主语,主语同位语

___, __ _, ___ (注意是两个逗号)

1The tongue , -----, is an important aid in chewing

and swallowing .

(A) is the chief organ of taste

(B) tasting the organ chiefly

(C) the chief organ of taste

(D) the organ chiefly tastes

分析:空格处显然缺定语或同位语。句中已有谓语动词is, 故先排除A和D。(B)不合题意,故也可排除。(C)是名词短语,适合作主语的同位语,使句子完整,句意正确,故选(C)。

同位语考试形式二:名词作主语,后面的名词是主语同位语,解释说明后面的名词

___, ___ (注意是一个逗号)

2A prolific writer of prose and verse, ----of

Native Americans in her novel, Century of

Dishonor.

(A) Helen Hunt Jackson took up the cause

(B) the cause taken up by Helen Hunt Jackson

(C) was Helen Hunt Jackson's cause

(D) the cause that Helen Hunt Jackson took up.

分析:空格前为名词短语,空格后为介词短语,空格处明显缺主语和谓语动词。根据空格前名词短语的意思判断,主语应该是人名而不是指物的名词,故选(A)。

3Often very annoying weeds ,-----and act as

hosts to many insect pests.

(A) that crowd out less hardy plants than

goldenrods

(B) crowding out less hardy plants by goldenrods

(C) the goldenrod's crowding out of less hardy

plants

(D) goldenrods crowd out less hardy plants

分析:空格后面是and, 句中缺少与and并列的谓语动词。A只有从句没有主句; B,C分别是分词和名词短语, 无法与动词act并列; D 包含主语的同位语goldenrods和谓语动词crowd。

同位语考试形式三:主谓宾后面出现一个名词,那么名词可以作宾语或者表语的同位语

4An Olympic marathon is 26 miles and 385

yards, approximately ---- from Marathon to

Athens.

(A) the distance is

(B) that the distance is

(C) is that the distance

(D) the distance

分析:逗号前为完整的句子,后面如果再接句子一定要有连接词或者从句引导词。A、B、C均为主谓结构,但都没有从句引导词,故排除。D是名词短语作表语同位语,故选(D)。

九、比较结构

比较结构中要注意两点:1、倒装性;2、对称性

1Western Nebraska generally receives less

snow than --eastern Nebraska.

(A) does

(B) in

(C) it does in

(D) in it does

分析:than引导比较状语从句,空格后面是个专有名词,肯定是比较从句的主语,空格处明显缺从句的谓语动词,只有(A)符合条件,故选(A)。注意than eastern Nebraska does 是正确的语序,但是原文中使用了倒装;在比较结构的后面部分中,如果比较从句的主语长,谓语动词短,动词可放到主语前面进行到装。

2Hot objects emit----- do cold objects.

(A) rays more than infrared

(B) rays are more infrared than

(C) more than infrared rays

(D) more infrared rays than

分析:emit为及物动词,空格处缺宾语和引导比较从句的than, 只有(D)符合条件。注意空格后为倒装形式,do代替emit以避免重复。此题为常考的句子结构。

比较结构中还需要注意相互比较的必须属于同一种事物

3The activities of the international marketing

researcher are frequently much broader than ----.

(A) the domestic marketer has

(B) the domestic marketer does

(C) those of the domestic marketer

(D) that which has the domestic marketer

分析:本题还是考查比较句,由于谓语动词是系动词are, 故先排除与其不对应的以has和does结尾的(A)和(B)。选项D则语义不清,也可排除。C中those代替前面提到的activities以避免重复,those一定要具备,因为只有这样才能满足比较的都是activities,谓语动词are因与主句谓语动词相同而被省略,因此C为正确答案。

4The annual worth of Utah's manufacturing

is greater than --.

(A) that of its mining and farming combined

(B) mining and farming combination

(C) that mining and farming combined

(D) of its combination mining and farming

分析:本题为比较句,一般来说,比较的双方应属于同一类事物。句中主语显然是比较的一方,而空格处应是与之相对应的另一方。(B)、(C)、(D)均无法与the annual worth相对应,故可以排除。(A)中代词that代替 the annual worth, 是英语中常见的避免重复的用法,故选(A)。

十、定语从句省略结构

关系代词在定语从句中做宾语时可以省略

1Most crocodiles will eat anything----capture

and overpower.

(A) can

(B) they can

(C) which can

(D) and

分析:空格前是个完整句子,空格后是两个并列的及物动词,后面却没有宾语,由此可推断出空格处缺能作从句宾语的从句引导词和从句主语。(A)、(D)没有从句引导词,可首先排除。(C)有从句引导词,也可作从句的宾语,却没有从句主语。正确答案(B)看似没有从句引导词,实际上是省略了引导词that,故选(B)。that they can capture, that引导定语从句在句子中做capture的宾语。

2A majority of people in the United States can

get all the calcium their bodies----from the

food they eat.

(A) require

(B) requires

(C) requiring

(D)to require

分析:此题显然缺从句谓语动词,故首先排除(C)和(D)。(B)为第三人称单数形式,与主语bodies相矛盾,故也可排除,因此选择A。

their bodies require from the food they eat是定语从句修饰calcium, 省略了that; 实际上they eat也是定语从句省略了that修饰the food

“介词+名词”在定语从句中做表语时,关系代词和be动词可以同时省略,剩下的形容词短语做名词的后置定语。

3To produceone pound of honey , a colony of

A

beesmust fly a distanceequalsto twicearound

B C D

the world.

分析:句子中实际上是省略了that is, a distance that is equal to, 因此equals to 应该改为equal to

4A neutron starformswhena starmuch more massive

A B C

than the Sun dies andexploded.

D

分析:句中省略了which is, a star which is much more

十一、状语从句省略结构

Metals expand when they are heated.

Metals expand 是主句;when they are heated 是状语从句。但是这个状语从句中可以省略掉they are, 句子变成:Metals expand when heated. 但是并不是所有的状语从句都可以这么省略。这种省略从句主语的方式理论上需要满足以下两个条件:

第一、从句主语和主句主语必须保持一致;

第二、从句的谓语必须是be动词,主语和be动词同进同出,

比如上面的they和are要么同时省略,要么同时保留。

1Although----rigid, bones exhibit a degree of

elasticity that enables the skeleton to withstand

considerable impact.

(A) apparently

(B) are apparently

(C) apparently their

(D) are they apparently

分析:连词although通常引导主谓完整的状语从句,当从句主语与主句主语相同、从句谓语又为系表结构时,则可省略主语和连系动词,故正确答案为(A)。Although apparently rigid = Although bones are apparently rigid, 注意bones和are必须同时省略。

因此,我们从上面的例题中来分析一下填空题中状语从句省略以后的形式:

though, although, even thought, while, If, when等为引导状语从句的词;

这些词后面一定+形容词(分词),主句(注意逗号的后面是主句,前面是从句)

2All marble is composed of crystals of the

minerals calcite or dolomite, ----, are perfectly

white.

(A) when, pure which

(B) when, which pure

(C) which, pure when

(D) which, when pure

分析:空格前是个完整的句子,空格后是系表结构,空格处显然缺非限定性定语从句的引导词兼作从句主语。(A)、(B)不引导非限定性定语从句,可首先排除。(C)中的pure和when位置错了,故选(D)。注意when pure是插入语,同时也是省略用法when they are pure;which are perfectly white, 状语从句省略结构,

3--relatively costly, the diesel engine

is highly efficient and needs servicing

infrequently

(A) Even

(B) It is

(C) Even though

(D) There is

分析:B和D填入后,都是构成两个主句,不对;Even though则引导状语从句,even though it is, 这里it is 已经省略。

十二、动词ing+名词的复数作主语结构

这是一个比较难的结构,因为许多同学经常混淆动名词和现在分词。

现在分词相当于形容词,和后面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系;

动名词是相当于具有动词特征的名词,和后面的名词是动宾关系。

那么如何在句子中判断动名词和现在分词呢?我们来看两个例子:

Doing exercises is a good habit. 做练习是一个好习惯。

The starring troops have to surrender.

第一个句子强调的是做,而不是练习,不能说练习是一个好习惯,只能说做练习是一个好习惯,因此do是中心词,它和后面的名词是动宾关系,那么这个do就是动名词;

第二个句子说挨饿的军队必须投降,是军队投降,而不是挨饿要投降,因此中心词是troop,starring是来修饰troop的,因此starring是现在分词。

在“动词ing+名词的复数”作主语结构的句子中,谓语动词是系动词is

1--by transferring the blame to others is often

called scapegoating.

(A) Eliminate problems

(B) The eliminated problems(被消除的问题)

(C) Eliminating problems

(D) Problems are eliminated

分析:空格处缺主语。(A)不能作主语,(B)的名词为复数,与后面谓语动词相矛盾,(D)使句子出现两个谓语,故排除。(C)构成动名词短语,可作句中主语,故选(C)。这个题目的意思是通过把责任转嫁给别人,这种消除问题的方式,通常叫做替罪羊。

2--wooden buildings helps to protect them

from damage due to weather.

(A) Painting

(B) Painted

(C) The paint

(D) By painting

分析:从谓语动词helps可判断出主语不可能为buildings, 因为主谓语在数上不一致,故空格处缺构成单数的词。四个选项中只有动名词painting符合这一条件,故选(A)。(B)构成复数名词短语,(C)无法与后面的名词连接,(D)构成介词短语,不能作主语,三个选项都可排除。

painted wooden buildings 被油漆的房子,中心词是buildings, 后面help不能用单数

painting wooden buildings油漆房子这件事情,中心词是painting

3Scientists think -- helps some tree to

conserve water in the winter.

(A) when losing leaves

(B) leaves are lost

(C) that losing leaves

(D) the leaves losing

分析:这道题目大家都能够选择C, 但是我们必须彻底理解C为什么正确,think that后面是宾语从句。losing是及物动词,丢弃叶子帮助树来保持水分,要注意不是树叶来帮助保持水分,而是丢弃树叶这个动作来保持水分。丢弃叶子是树主动丢弃,因此losing是动名词。

十三、make结构

make结构即为:make +sth.(宾语) +possible+(宾语补足语)

共有三种形式:

make it possible+to do

make it possible+that引导的从句

make possible sth (这个sth一定很长,它后面有一个后置定语)

做题技巧:

如果possible后面有to do 或者that引导的定语从句, 中间一定有it

如果possible后面有名词,中间一定没有it

1X-rays are able to pass through objects and

thus make--details that are otherwise

impossible to observe .

(A) it visible

(B) visibly

(C) visible

(D) they are visible

分析:此题考动词make的一种用法,visible后面有名词,因此中间不能有it,选择C;可以看到空格后that引导的是定语从句,visible是宾语补足语,宾语补足语的存在是因为宾语太长了,details是宾语。

2Using many symbols makes--to put a large

amount of information on a single map.

(A) possible

(B) it possible

(C) it is possible

(D) that possible

分析:从四个选项可以判断出本题考make的一种惯用法。首先排除明显的错误选项:C为句子,却没有与主句相连的连词,D中that后面应有主语并构成结构完整的从句。 由于后面是动词不定式,因此possible前面一定有it, it作形式宾语,故B正确。

十四、the more …the more…结构

这个结构的意思是“越….越…”,结构一共有三条规则:

1. the more后面的名词必须使用冠词或者所有格, 新题专门考这条规则

2. the more 后面的谓语如果是be动词的话,可以省略,例如上面的例题

3. 第二个the more 后面可以使用倒装,而第一个后面却不行

the more, the more其实是原因状语从句,前面是原因,后面是结果,倒装句中必须是主句倒装,从句绝对不能够倒装。

1The stronger--magnet, the greater the

number of lines of magnetic force.

(A) of

(B) the

(C) is the

(D) is of the

分析:本题显然考查”the more … the more…”结构,the more后面的名词必须使用冠词或者所有格,因此只能选择B

2The less the surface of the ground yields to the

weight of the body of a runner, --to the body.

(A) the stress it is greater

(B) greater is the stress

(C) greater stress is

(D) the greater the stress

分析:正确答案为D。此题考the more … the more句型,只有D符合这一句型的要求,故选D。

十五、表示结果的伴随状语结构

主谓宾完整的句子后面,如果出现两个词,thereby或者thus, 那么这两个词后面必须使用现在分词,表示“从而怎么样”的意思,这便是表示结果的伴随状语结构。但是必须注意并不是thus后面就是加doing,必须是前面一个完整的句子才对。

1A microphone enables asofttoneto beamplified,

A B

thusmaking it possiblethe gentle

C

renditions ofromanticlove songs in a large hall.

D

分析:Possible后面有名词,那么it应该去掉,thus后面表示结果的伴随状语从句,表示从而使得歌曲演唱成为可能。

2The Smithsonian Institution preserves more

than sixty-five million items of scientific,

historical, or artistic interest, --winning the

popular title, “attic of the nation.”

(A) however

(B) thus

(C) and

(D) moreover

分析:逗号前面是个完整的句子,逗号后面是现在分词短语作状语表示结果。四个选项中只有thus一词可直接放在现在分词前面,故选B。thus 副词,修饰分词winning, 伴随状语

3Snow aids farmers by keeping heat in the

lower ground levels, thereby--from freezing.

(A) to save the seeds

(B) saving the seeds

(C)which saves the seeds

(D) the seeds saved

分析:thereby和to有意思重复,所以不能够选择(A), 后面应该跟现在分词,答案为B

十六、形容词最高级省略结构

The crane is the tallest bird of the wading birds.

最高级后面的名词与范围名词重复,可以省略,句子变为The crane is the tallest of the wading birds.

1The crane is--of the wading birds.

(A) the tallest

(B) the tallest that is

(C) which is the tallest

(D) which the tallest is

分析:空格前是主语和谓语,空格后是of引导的介词短语,空格处明显缺作表语的名词或名词短语。四个选项中只有(A)使句子结构完整,语义清楚,故选(A)。

2. Cowsare saidto bethe leastintelligentlyof

A B C

domesticanimals.

D

分析:改为形容词,intelligent,intelligently为副词,不能作表语。

十七、规则动词过去分词作定语结构

这里的规则动词指的是过去式和过去分词一样,导致考生看不出句子结构,比如:

program, programmed, programmed

因此判断这个词是过去式还是过去分词就显得比较重要:

第一步:从逻辑上判断这个动作是主动还是被动

第二步:如果是被动的话,做谓语前面一定有系动词be

1--Wupatki National Monument in Arizona

features structures built of red sandstone by

ancestors of the Hopi people.

(A) That the

(B) In the

(C) Around the

(D) The

分析:空格后是结构完整的句子,空格处显然缺定冠词the 修饰主语,故选D。A中that引导主语从句,使整个句子变成从句而无主句,B、C构成介词短语,使句子缺主语,故排除。句子中的built是过去分词。

2Antibodies --by small, round cells called

lymphocytes and plasma cells.

(A) to be made

(B) making

(C) made

(D) are made

分析:空格前为名词作主语,365足球开户:空格后是介词by引导的动作执行者,called是过去分词作定语,所以句子缺谓语,故选D。A、B、C均为非谓语动词,故排除。

3Automatons programmed to perform a given

task ------the flexibility and adaptability of

human beings.

(A) without

(B) lack

(C) minus

(D) not having

分析:programmed在句中是过去分词作名词后置修饰语,空格处缺谓语动词。四个选择答案中只有(B)是可作谓语的动词,故选(B)。

B, programmed是一个定语,而不是谓语

机器人被编制程序,所以是过去分词,而不是谓语动词

十八、逻辑主语结构

在一个完整的句子前面出现现在分词、过去分词、或者介词短语,那么这个句子的主语是前面这三种结构逻辑上的主语。

1Having been served lunch, --.

(A) the problem was discussed by the members

of the committee

(B) the committee members discussed the

problem

(C) it was discussed by the committee

members the problem

(D) a discussion of the problem was make by

the members of the committee

分析:Having been served lunch指被招待了午饭,那么只可能是委员会的成员被招待,而不可能是问题,所以选择B

2--was not incorporated as a city until

almost two centuries later, in 1834.

(A) Settling Brooklyn, the Dutch

(B) The Dutch settled Brooklyn

(C) Brooklyn was settled by the Dutch

(D) Settled by the Dutch, Brooklyn

分析:空格后面是谓语和状语,空格处缺主语。Brooklyn表示人或者Dutch表示地方做主语,但是从as a city可知,主语不是人名,而是地名,由此首先排除A。B、C均是句子,不合要求。D符合句法和题意。

3At thirteen --- at a district school near her

home, and when she was fifteen , she saw her

first article in print.

(A) the first teaching position that Mary Jane

Hawes had

(B) the teaching position was Mary Jane

Hawe's first

(C) when Mary Jane Hawes had her first

teaching position

(D) Mary Jane Hawes had her first teaching

position

分析:从并列连词and 可知,第一个逗号前是一个完整的句子,空格处缺主谓结构,而且主语是一个人名。四个选项中只有D以人名作主语,故选D。

4Even at low levels, --.

(A) the nervous system has produced

detrimental effects by lead

(B) lead's detrimental effects are producing the

nervous system

(C) lead produces detrimental effects on the

nervous system

(D) the detrimental effects produced by lead on

the nervous system

分析:空格前为介词短语状语,空格处缺一个完整的句子。A、B结构上似乎完整,但意思不清,D不是完整的句子,故选C。

5The chorus playsa largepartin anyoratorio,linking

A B C

areaswere sungby soloists with segments of choral music.

D

分析:应该把D中的were去掉

十九、复合宾语结构

有些及物动词+宾语后意思表达不完整,需要再加形容词或者名词来补充说明宾语被叫做不完全及物动词,该形容词或者名词叫做宾语补足语。宾语加补足语叫做复合宾语。当宾语和宾补由主动语态变为被动语态,分别变为主语和主补。

We played soccer.

We called him Bob. Bob在这里作宾语补足语

He was called Bob. Bob在这里作主语补足语

下面列出了一些经常要求使用宾补的动词

make, consider, call, elect, appoint,

例:We appoint him monitor.

We elected him president.

1Poodles were once used as retrievers in duck

hunting , but the American Kennel Club does not

consider them --because they are now primarily

kept as pets.

(A) where sporting dogs

(B) sporting dogs

(C) when sporting dogs

(D) they are sportingdogs

分析:选择B, them是宾语,sporting dogs宾补

二十、It结构

一、强调句型

It is + 强调部分+that +其余部分

这个句型需要注意几点:

强调部分+其余部分是一个完整的句子;

强调部分可以强调主语、宾语和状语,不能强调谓语和定语;

强调人使用who或者that, 其他的只能用that (即使是时间和地点),who 和that绝对不能省略

如果原句是过去时态,强调句型使用it was.,例如:

原句: Ann bought these books last year.

强调宾语:It was these books that Ann bought last year.

强调状语:It was last year that Ann bought these books.

二、形式主语

It is + 名词/形容词+ to do/that 引导的句子

to do/that 引导的句子是真正的主语,it 是形式主语,这是为了避免头重脚轻。

1It isthe interaction between people ,rather than

A B

the events that occur in their lives ,that are

C

the main focus ofsocialpsychology.

D

分析:Rather than …是插入语,主句是强调句型, it is …that, 主语是interaction, 所以是is

2--an increasing international exchange of

educational films.

(A) It is

(B) There is

(C) Though there is

(D) Although it is

分析:缺少主谓,选择B, it 用在句子的句首,只可能作强调句型或者形式主语。空格后是一个名词短语,只有B与之构成完整的句子。A语义不完整,C、D则使整个句子成了让步从句而缺主句,故都可排除。

二十一、which引导的定语从句结构

which是关系代词,which后面应该加缺主语或者宾语的句子,

在这个句子中,which要作成分,作主语或者宾语

in which+完整的句子

which在定语从句中作in的宾语,所以不能作后面句子的主语

名词+of which+谓语动词

of which来修饰名词,名词在定语从句中作主语,所以后面直接跟谓语动词

1In blank verse--of ten syllables, five of

which are accented.

(A) line consists of each

(B) consists of each line

(C) each line consists

(D) it consists of each line

分析:空格前后均为介词词组,逗号后为非限定性定语从句,空格处缺主句主谓成分。A单数名词line前没有限定词,而且语义不清,B没有主语,D中it 指代不明,所以选C。

five of which are accented表示其中五个要被重读,of which修饰five, 十个中的五个

2The spiral threads of spider's web have a

sticky substance on them ------ insects.

(A) traps

(B) trap its

(C) which traps

(D) which it traps

分析:空格前为完整的主谓结构,后面是一个名词,A和B显然不能与前面的谓语动词并列,故可以首先排除。D中的代词it明显是多余的,故也不对。C为正确选项,其中关系代词which指代前面的名词短语a sticky substance。网上有粘状的物质来诱捕昆虫。

3Traditionally, ethnographers and linguists

have paidlittle attention to cultural

A

interpretationsgiven tosilence,or tothe types of

B C

social contexts inwhich tendsto occur.

D

分析:D错,in which后面跟完整句子。In which it, it 指代silence, or to 和第二行的to并列

4After the First World War, the author Anais Nin

became interested in the art movement

known as Surrealism and in psychoanalysis,

both --her novels and short stories.

(A) in which the influence

(B) of which influenced

(C) to have influence

(D) its influence in

分析:第二个逗号前为结构完整的句子,A中有从句引导词which, 却没有谓语动词,构成不了完整的句子。C中最后一个词为名词,无法与后面的名词短语连接,D构成名词短语,不合题意,而且名词influence一般接介词on, 故三个选项都可排除。B构成一个非限定性定语从句,故选B。

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